Butaleja District boarders Namutumba district in the west, Tororo and Bugiri in the South, Budaka in the North and Mbale in the East.
Administratively the district has two counties namely: Bunyole East and Bunyole West.
It has 5 Town Councils Namely Busaba, Butaleja, Busolwe, Bufujja and Nabiganda .It has Ten Sub Counties namely Naweyo, Mazimasa, Himutu, kachonga, Busolwe,Busaba, Budumba, Nawanjofu ,Busabi and Budumba.
The Administrative Headquarters is at Butaleja Town.
Originally, Butaleja was a country under Tororo District until 2005 July when it was elevated to a district and operationalized in August 2005.
Socially, the population of Butaleja is heterogeneous: -People from various ethnics as well as different religious groups live together in Butaleja which enriches the cultural life and builds the basis for a peaceful atmosphere in the district.
The district is predominated by Banyole who are still the biggest ethnic group at 6%, followed by Bagwere at 5%, Japadhola at 3% and Basoga at 1%.
The population structure is such that the largest population is of young children supported by small middle age group with very narrow percentage of old aged, This signifies ahigh dependence burden, low levels of production, Education, Access to good housing, good health, investment capital and perpetual poverty.
The district is endowed with productive soils, tropical Climate conducive for raising of variety of crops and Animals for domestic and economic purposes.
It has R. Manafa and wetlands with hundreds of varieties of fish, plants, birds and animal species.